Plant Extraction: A Brief Overview of the Process

The process of plant extraction is achieved with the help of another process that inolves the extraction of solid liquids.

To make this process more understandable, we can define it simply as the process in which various compounds are being separated by solubilization from a solid form body with the help of a chemical agent called solvent. This process is later completed with a method called the purification method. If there is an edible solvent present in the extract, then it is not dissociated. If there is an inedible solvent present in the extract, a dry extract is obtained from it with the help of the separation process.

Quality Parameters:

 

  • The main factors that contribute to plant extraction include equipment that performs well, selection of raw materials, utilization process, and the choice of quality solvents.
  • High quality plant extraction can only be achieved by professionally and properly combining various quality parameters.

 

Plant Integrity Conservation

Plant extraction methods result in better plant integrity conservation. This occurs due to the mere fact that administration methods become multiplied with the help of new plant properties discovery. The result of that is the meeting of customers’ needs. Because of that, high quality and new technological equipment needs to be introduced. That allows the ability of quality extracts being provided together with a personalized solution which meets with client’s expectations. This kind of plant integrity conservation becomes an essential conservation.

About Plant Extracts

Whenever we talk about plant extracts, what image we should have in mind is simple powders which were made thanks to the crushing and the processing of plants. These powders that were crushed from the plants and later on processed are called on the market extracts. They are being called extracts because they do not contain not even 1% of water. Water is however used in their making but it is later on eliminated thanks to the drying process from the plants.

Before separation method takes place, one special process needs to take place. What is that process being called? The name of that special process that needs to be utilized before separation is extraction. This process is also known by many as plant extraction. Common raw plants help this process become successful. Plant extraction produces liquid from the initial solid form. Speaking of purification process, the solubilization step has to be added to it. If a desired ingredient needs to be extracted from a liquid form body, a process called pressing needs to be performed. The extract that needs to be extracted from the liquid form can be extracted with solid-liquid extraction process. What comes next after this process is purification process.

Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients and Grecian Era

Nowadays, essentially anybody recognizes  “active pharmaceutical ingredient “.

 

Regardless of the possibility that you some way or another is unaware of it. now, studying the word presumably think about what it implies. Active pharmaceutical ingredient alludes to the complex (or mixes) inside of something (generally a type of prescription) that really delivers the consequence of the medicine. Definitely many components must be devouring in ludicrously little amounts. Moreover creating drugs in that quantity is fiercely unfeasible. Therefore, they are blended with (sometimes a lot) Compound in an effort to create a achievable product. Mostly these are impetuses, without which the l lively pharmaceutical ingredient can not operate properly.

However, within the term pharmacy has exceptionally old roots.

 

The term Pharmacy originates from the Grecian text “Pharmacos”. It was initially utilized in portrayal of medicines or herbs That they believed hadhat they believed had remedy (or even enchanted properties). Yes, enchantment! While straightaway we might daydream of primitive Greece as rampart of insightful, advanced, clever and groundbreaking minds, this is essentially in light of the fact that the vast majority of our surviving writing and composing are from the masterminds of that era. They were the contingency, rather than the rule, and the mass uphold then as breath of life with enchanting qualities.

 

1: Active pharmaceutical ingredient contains active complex

2: Orginates from the Gracian term “Pharmacos”

3:In precedent days several thought recovering as a kind of Enchantment

 

For instance, in barbaricFor example, in antiquated Rome,  a herb that was such a powerful type of anti-conception medication, that they really ate it out of the earth!It is extint. Though, we grasp about its life at the hand of saved scripts and records.. Besides, they even delivered it on their coins! It is clear beyond a shadow of a doubt to see at which point such things are regared with an essence of magic within the primitive world.

 

Downstream processing: An Intro

Downstream processing is the process of making new medicines and biosynthetic products from natural resources. These natural resources can be anything from animals to plants and even the bio-waste. The process of downstream processing includes the proper management of other resources as well like water management.

Uses of downstream processing:

  •    To make antibiotics:

Downstream processing is very useful to make the antibiotics as they use biological and natural resources to make these medicines.

  •    To make hormones:

Once upon a time hormones were considered only to be produced by the human body naturally. By using downstream processing, it is now possible to make very useful hormones like insulin and human growth hormones.

  •    Vaccines:

Vaccines made by the natural resources are proved to be more effective and do not have side effects.

  •    Flavors:

This is a new concept in the biotechnology field. But it surely is a good way to make flavors. The artificial flavors were sometimes considered to be harmful but the flavors mad by downstream processing by using natural resources are safe.

The downstream processing comes under the specialization field of biotechnology and chemical engineering. This process has significantly changed the medical industry as they do not have to make new medicines from non-biological compounds. That process was lengthy and it further created by products like polluted water.

This process includes various processes in it. It takes four steps to get the final product through downstream processing.

  1.    Capture:

This includes the process of removing the colloidal material from the main solution.

  1.    Product isolation:

Product isolation is the removal of those materials whose properties differ from the main solution.

  1.    Intermediate purification:

This process includes the removal of bulk contaminants such as host cells and other types of viruses.

  1.    Product polishing:

Product polishing is the refinement of the final product until they become the desired product.

This was the introduction to the downstream processing. There will be a series of articles about the various processes include in the downstream processing.

Hope this articles helps you.

Types of chromatography

Types of chromatography is a wide aspect on its own. This is because the types are arrived at depending on a couple of factors among them the technique employed, the physical characteristics of the mixtures/ components and others. In light of all the factors put in to consideration, we can say we have around 12 types of chromatography.

What are the types of chromatography?

Below are the 12 types of chromatography with a little explanation of each type:

  • High performance liquid chromatography- this type applies the principle of surface area to volume ratio. The mobile phase is pumped into the column at a pre-set pressure. The column particles are very small increasing the surface area to volume ratio hence better separation takes place
  • Gas chromatography- as the name suggests, this type has a particular interest in gas. This is because it uses gas for the mobile phase. The gas used has to be pure i.e. doesn’t have any impurities.
  • Ion- exchange chromatography- this type is dependent on the charge of ions in the mobile phase. Ions in the sample with the same charge will be eluted as like charges repel
  • Size exclusion chromatography- this method works around the size of particles in the component. The largest particles are eluted first and the smaller ones follow
  • Thin layer chromatography- like the name, this type has the stationary phase as a thin layer
  • Paper chromatography- here, we use a rectangular or circular paper as the column.
  • Affinity chromatography
  • Liquid chromatography combined with mass spectroscopy
  • Gas chromatography combined with mass spectroscopy
  • Ultra high performance chromatograph
  • High performance thin layer chromatography- a more efficient type of TLC
  • Column chromatography- the mobile phase is poured through a column that in turn allows separation of the sample

Organic Chemistry and Synthetic Organic Chemistry

The differences between Organic Chemistry and Synthetic Organic Chemistry are small, but by no means insignificant. At it’s most base and simple form, Organic Chemistry describes the overall study of the properties and structures of organic compounds, and the effects had on them by various sources. While the study referred to as Synthetic Organic Chemistry generally talks more specifically about finding ways to create compounds using existing methods.

 

This can either mean creating brand new compounds or molecules that have never existed before (but have been theorized to have desirable uses and/or applications) or simply taking an existing compound or molecule and trying to find a more efficient way to create it so that it can be used more readily.

 

More Details

 

Of course saying that those are the only two uses of synthetic organic chemistry is almost insulting to the study, but they are the two main focuses, and will therefore be the focus here. Since synthetic organic chemistry is in fact a subset of the larger umbrella of “Organic Chemistry” people usually wind up studying a bit of both. However, it is theoretically possible to study organic chemistry and only have the most passing familiarity with synthetic organic chemistry.

 

So it’s not that it’s a different science, per-se, it just simply uses focuses one general aspect of the science. The building of compounds. It might be a bit boring to some people, but to others this process is endlessly fascinating. So, to clarify, this is the process of:

 

1: Mixing Compounds or Molecules

2: Adding and Repeating as Needed

3: Testing the Results Under Various Conditions

4: Making a Viable, Usable Entity at the Other End

 

This is a wonderful, useful science that is helping drive the modern world forward as we create new and exciting molecules. Or simply better ways of making stuff we already know how to make, making them more available for people and the public in general.

Plant extraction- Advantages and Challenges of Formulating Drugs

 

In order to ensure that high potency drugs deliver notable results, they undergo a process known as encapsulation. In most cases, the formulation of drugs is from substances that are mainly plant extraction from different parts of the world. We can define this process as the enclosing of tiny droplets in a coating to form capsules. Each capsule contains the correct percentage of drug that a patient needs for proper execution of its intended purpose. Encapsulation has been widely used in the manufacture of multivitamins and drugs. Plant extraction is a process that has been used worldwide from ancient times in order to extract medical values from plants and herbs.

 

Why is it important to encapsulate drugs?

 

  • Production costs are highly cut down.
  • Reduced risk of drug-human contamination
  • Drug-drug contamination is also reduced
  • Reduced production time
  • Handling them is easier as compared to other methods
  • The chances of an explosion or fire are reduced.

 

As the need for drugs keeps on rising, so are the challenges. Some of the challenges are:

 

First, the medicine is becoming expensive by the day. The number of qualified plant operators is diminishing as a result of the high qualifications that have been set out. Upgrading of the safety measures requirements has also resulted in the low production of the drugs. This follows the manufacturer’s inability to comply in time.

 

Waste disposal measures and equipment to aid the same have become too expensive. Perhaps, this is because of a rise in demand due to the upcoming manufacturers. Regulators have taken it upon themselves to make requirements strict enough in order to curb unscrupulous manufacturers.

 

There are several challenges that are faced by pharmaceutical companies while plant extraction process are going on.

 

What can be done?

 

In retaliation of these challenges, manufacturers should ensure they comply with the laid down rules. They should carry out extensive screening of their employees to ensure they do not have half-baked plant operators.
Manufacturers need to have good record skills and if need be, they can upgrade to software and applications to aid in the safe delivery of good quality high potency drugs.

Chromatography and its abundant uses

Chromatography may not seem interesting for people who are away from the sciences world. This process affects daily lives in many ways. It is useful to separate a compound into various components. Chromatography plays a crucial role in the forensics, athlete testing, food regulation and also in favorite alcoholic drinks control.

 

Chromatography everyday uses

  • If you are into Law and Order and CSI programs, it is helpful for the investigation of criminal cases.  It helps in analysis of cloth or blood samples, blood testing, arson verification, etc. This process helps in determining alcohol, poisonous substances or drugs levels in the body.
  • Chromatography offers accuracy and precision as it can identify substances that are in the bloodstream.  Thus it is valuable for doping testing or even to check the drugs in athletes that enhance performance.
  • Chromatography can trace meat as well. The efficacy in the food is of immense use in analyzing.

 

Ebola Immunization

 

Specializing in variety of flippant matters such as the alcohol quality is one of the best benefits of chromatography as it helps saving millions of lives and is truly helpful. Ebola virus, the deadly one claimed more than 5000 lives from the last year after its outbreak and caused panic everywhere, especially in Guinea, Sierra Leone and Liberia, to places it is largely confined.
The scientists keep on making attempts to fight off the disease, but only chromatography has shown itself that it is incredibly useful in identifying the antibodies that are more effective and helps in neutralizing Ebola. There are no drugs that are validated as yet conclusively, thus it was the key factor in the development of this experimental immunization Zmapp. Nevertheless, it is expected to continue in the ongoing research to be used so that chromatography helps in determining the actual reason.

Synthetic organic chemistry: drugs

In this series of articles on Synthetic organic chemistry we have seen use of organic chemistry in synthesis of products like explosive, dyes and polymers. Now, in this article we are going to see application of organic chemistry in the synthesis of drugs.

In earlier days, drugs were not synthesised from organic compound, they were just prepared by the use of natural and Ayurveda techniques.  Necessity for drug synthesis was felt as new diseases started to appear and older resources were not able to deal with them. It was around first half of nineteenth century when men like Richard Willstatter started to perform experiments with organic molecule for synthesis of drugs. At start insufficient knowledge about this subject troubled the organic chemist but theirhard work turned out to be a great success with a lot of benefits for chemist of 20th century.

Here are some examples of organic compounds which were used for the synthesis of drugs in earlier times.

  • Chlorophyll: Chlorophyll,the green, light absorbing catalyst present in plants was one of the first organic compound used in synthesis of drugs. The Germen chemist Richard Willstatter did experiment on chlorophyll and made possible production of carbohydrates and carbon dioxide by utilizing the sunlight.
  • Nucleotides: Structure of nucleotides was studied by Russian-American chemistPhoebus Aaron Theodor Levene. His studies resulted in the discovery of giant molecules nucleic acids. His studies were appreciated and worked on by other chemists who succeeded in the formation of various nucleotides and other related compounds.

Despite, these two organic compounds, chemist made use of many other useful organic compounds for the synthesis of drugs. For Instance, study of structure of carotenoids by Swiss chemist Paul Karrer d which is a plant pigment and closely resembles to vitamin A. But in the casesynthetics of drugs from organic substance surpassed natural drugs.

 

Fermentation- How to ferment vegetables

Based on the numerous benefits that arise from consuming fermented foods, vegetable fermenting is something that you can consider taking up from the comfort of your home. The process is simple and you can use vegetables from your garden or from your local market to make them last longer.

Preparation

You can ferment them whole, chop or shred them all based on your desired end product. It involves salting which can be done in two ways.You can salt them directly by sprinkling salt on them and pounding them until they produce juice that covers them well in the fermentation vessel or you could also dip them in salty water, brine, and ensure that they are completely covered.

Once salted, pack them in the jars and ensure they are fully submerged in water or the juice. Where they don’t produce enough juice, add filtered water.

The process

Fermentation is a process that takes time and in most cases,it begins within a couple of days and continues for much longer. This process is all dependent on the amount of salt used as well as the temperature of the fermentation location. More salt slows down the process whereas warmth speeds it up. The peak of fermentation depends on your taste and once satisfied, move them to your fridge where the process will continue but at much slower speed.As the days go by, the flavors will keep changing as the process continues.

Traditionally, fermentation was done to ensure the vegetables lasted through winter. Nowadays, itis done to improve the health benefits of the vegetables as well as help with weight loss. Fermented vegetables are not the easiest to take in in terms of taste but with time they grow on you and you may end up having them as a favorite.

How is Peptides associated with Skin

With new healthy skin fixings and items being acquainted with ladies continually, it can get to be overpowering to comprehend what these fixings can accomplish for your skin. Peptides are a standout amongst the most encouraging disclosures in the most recent couple of years. Take in more about this hostile to maturing powerhouse, what it can accomplish for you and how you can include it into your excellence regimen.

 

What are peptides?

 

Peptides are the links of amino acids and are the building squares of proteins in the skin. At the point when peptides shape a lengthylink of amino acids, then they get to be proteins. If they are in a small link of amino acids, then they can enter the top layer of the skin and send signs to the cells to tell them how to work.

 

One critical protein in the skin is collagen. Collagen gives the skin its suppleness and thickness. At the point when collagen separates in the skin,wrinkles shape. Peptides connected thetop of the skin can relay a flag to collagen to provoke the development of new voila, and collagen, you resemble more young supple skin.

 

Sorts of peptides

 

There are numerous, many sorts of peptides, yet for healthy skin, there are particular peptides that are utilized broadly. The most well-known are collagen invigorating peptides, for example, Matrixyl; as present in Zensation’sBioregenerating Serum.

 

Secondly, there are copper peptides, that are likewise appeared to diminish aggravation. One item to attempt that bears copper peptides is the Neova Night Therapy with a Copper Peptide Complex.
At long last, probably the most inventive peptides are neuropeptides. The most prominent are called Argireline or Acetyl Hexapeptide-8. One serum that incorporates Argireline is Skin’s Exlinea Serum pHaze 25. Another case of this kind of peptide is Syn-ake, an engineered peptide that cases to lessen the profundity of wrinkles and increment skin’s smoothness. It depends on a fixing that imitates the poison of the Asian Snake. You can discover this in serums, for example,MicroVenomEyeLift Complex.