Types of chromatography

Types of chromatography is a wide aspect on its own. This is because the types are arrived at depending on a couple of factors among them the technique employed, the physical characteristics of the mixtures/ components and others. In light of all the factors put in to consideration, we can say we have around 12 types of chromatography.

What are the types of chromatography?

Below are the 12 types of chromatography with a little explanation of each type:

  • High performance liquid chromatography- this type applies the principle of surface area to volume ratio. The mobile phase is pumped into the column at a pre-set pressure. The column particles are very small increasing the surface area to volume ratio hence better separation takes place
  • Gas chromatography- as the name suggests, this type has a particular interest in gas. This is because it uses gas for the mobile phase. The gas used has to be pure i.e. doesn’t have any impurities.
  • Ion- exchange chromatography- this type is dependent on the charge of ions in the mobile phase. Ions in the sample with the same charge will be eluted as like charges repel
  • Size exclusion chromatography- this method works around the size of particles in the component. The largest particles are eluted first and the smaller ones follow
  • Thin layer chromatography- like the name, this type has the stationary phase as a thin layer
  • Paper chromatography- here, we use a rectangular or circular paper as the column.
  • Affinity chromatography
  • Liquid chromatography combined with mass spectroscopy
  • Gas chromatography combined with mass spectroscopy
  • Ultra high performance chromatograph
  • High performance thin layer chromatography- a more efficient type of TLC
  • Column chromatography- the mobile phase is poured through a column that in turn allows separation of the sample

Organic Chemistry and Synthetic Organic Chemistry

The differences between Organic Chemistry and Synthetic Organic Chemistry are small, but by no means insignificant. At it’s most base and simple form, Organic Chemistry describes the overall study of the properties and structures of organic compounds, and the effects had on them by various sources. While the study referred to as Synthetic Organic Chemistry generally talks more specifically about finding ways to create compounds using existing methods.

 

This can either mean creating brand new compounds or molecules that have never existed before (but have been theorized to have desirable uses and/or applications) or simply taking an existing compound or molecule and trying to find a more efficient way to create it so that it can be used more readily.

 

More Details

 

Of course saying that those are the only two uses of synthetic organic chemistry is almost insulting to the study, but they are the two main focuses, and will therefore be the focus here. Since synthetic organic chemistry is in fact a subset of the larger umbrella of “Organic Chemistry” people usually wind up studying a bit of both. However, it is theoretically possible to study organic chemistry and only have the most passing familiarity with synthetic organic chemistry.

 

So it’s not that it’s a different science, per-se, it just simply uses focuses one general aspect of the science. The building of compounds. It might be a bit boring to some people, but to others this process is endlessly fascinating. So, to clarify, this is the process of:

 

1: Mixing Compounds or Molecules

2: Adding and Repeating as Needed

3: Testing the Results Under Various Conditions

4: Making a Viable, Usable Entity at the Other End

 

This is a wonderful, useful science that is helping drive the modern world forward as we create new and exciting molecules. Or simply better ways of making stuff we already know how to make, making them more available for people and the public in general.

Plant extraction- Advantages and Challenges of Formulating Drugs

 

In order to ensure that high potency drugs deliver notable results, they undergo a process known as encapsulation. In most cases, the formulation of drugs is from substances that are mainly plant extraction from different parts of the world. We can define this process as the enclosing of tiny droplets in a coating to form capsules. Each capsule contains the correct percentage of drug that a patient needs for proper execution of its intended purpose. Encapsulation has been widely used in the manufacture of multivitamins and drugs. Plant extraction is a process that has been used worldwide from ancient times in order to extract medical values from plants and herbs.

 

Why is it important to encapsulate drugs?

 

  • Production costs are highly cut down.
  • Reduced risk of drug-human contamination
  • Drug-drug contamination is also reduced
  • Reduced production time
  • Handling them is easier as compared to other methods
  • The chances of an explosion or fire are reduced.

 

As the need for drugs keeps on rising, so are the challenges. Some of the challenges are:

 

First, the medicine is becoming expensive by the day. The number of qualified plant operators is diminishing as a result of the high qualifications that have been set out. Upgrading of the safety measures requirements has also resulted in the low production of the drugs. This follows the manufacturer’s inability to comply in time.

 

Waste disposal measures and equipment to aid the same have become too expensive. Perhaps, this is because of a rise in demand due to the upcoming manufacturers. Regulators have taken it upon themselves to make requirements strict enough in order to curb unscrupulous manufacturers.

 

There are several challenges that are faced by pharmaceutical companies while plant extraction process are going on.

 

What can be done?

 

In retaliation of these challenges, manufacturers should ensure they comply with the laid down rules. They should carry out extensive screening of their employees to ensure they do not have half-baked plant operators.
Manufacturers need to have good record skills and if need be, they can upgrade to software and applications to aid in the safe delivery of good quality high potency drugs.

Chromatography and its abundant uses

Chromatography may not seem interesting for people who are away from the sciences world. This process affects daily lives in many ways. It is useful to separate a compound into various components. Chromatography plays a crucial role in the forensics, athlete testing, food regulation and also in favorite alcoholic drinks control.

 

Chromatography everyday uses

  • If you are into Law and Order and CSI programs, it is helpful for the investigation of criminal cases.  It helps in analysis of cloth or blood samples, blood testing, arson verification, etc. This process helps in determining alcohol, poisonous substances or drugs levels in the body.
  • Chromatography offers accuracy and precision as it can identify substances that are in the bloodstream.  Thus it is valuable for doping testing or even to check the drugs in athletes that enhance performance.
  • Chromatography can trace meat as well. The efficacy in the food is of immense use in analyzing.

 

Ebola Immunization

 

Specializing in variety of flippant matters such as the alcohol quality is one of the best benefits of chromatography as it helps saving millions of lives and is truly helpful. Ebola virus, the deadly one claimed more than 5000 lives from the last year after its outbreak and caused panic everywhere, especially in Guinea, Sierra Leone and Liberia, to places it is largely confined.
The scientists keep on making attempts to fight off the disease, but only chromatography has shown itself that it is incredibly useful in identifying the antibodies that are more effective and helps in neutralizing Ebola. There are no drugs that are validated as yet conclusively, thus it was the key factor in the development of this experimental immunization Zmapp. Nevertheless, it is expected to continue in the ongoing research to be used so that chromatography helps in determining the actual reason.

Synthetic organic chemistry: drugs

In this series of articles on Synthetic organic chemistry we have seen use of organic chemistry in synthesis of products like explosive, dyes and polymers. Now, in this article we are going to see application of organic chemistry in the synthesis of drugs.

In earlier days, drugs were not synthesised from organic compound, they were just prepared by the use of natural and Ayurveda techniques.  Necessity for drug synthesis was felt as new diseases started to appear and older resources were not able to deal with them. It was around first half of nineteenth century when men like Richard Willstatter started to perform experiments with organic molecule for synthesis of drugs. At start insufficient knowledge about this subject troubled the organic chemist but theirhard work turned out to be a great success with a lot of benefits for chemist of 20th century.

Here are some examples of organic compounds which were used for the synthesis of drugs in earlier times.

  • Chlorophyll: Chlorophyll,the green, light absorbing catalyst present in plants was one of the first organic compound used in synthesis of drugs. The Germen chemist Richard Willstatter did experiment on chlorophyll and made possible production of carbohydrates and carbon dioxide by utilizing the sunlight.
  • Nucleotides: Structure of nucleotides was studied by Russian-American chemistPhoebus Aaron Theodor Levene. His studies resulted in the discovery of giant molecules nucleic acids. His studies were appreciated and worked on by other chemists who succeeded in the formation of various nucleotides and other related compounds.

Despite, these two organic compounds, chemist made use of many other useful organic compounds for the synthesis of drugs. For Instance, study of structure of carotenoids by Swiss chemist Paul Karrer d which is a plant pigment and closely resembles to vitamin A. But in the casesynthetics of drugs from organic substance surpassed natural drugs.

 

Fermentation- How to ferment vegetables

Based on the numerous benefits that arise from consuming fermented foods, vegetable fermenting is something that you can consider taking up from the comfort of your home. The process is simple and you can use vegetables from your garden or from your local market to make them last longer.

Preparation

You can ferment them whole, chop or shred them all based on your desired end product. It involves salting which can be done in two ways.You can salt them directly by sprinkling salt on them and pounding them until they produce juice that covers them well in the fermentation vessel or you could also dip them in salty water, brine, and ensure that they are completely covered.

Once salted, pack them in the jars and ensure they are fully submerged in water or the juice. Where they don’t produce enough juice, add filtered water.

The process

Fermentation is a process that takes time and in most cases,it begins within a couple of days and continues for much longer. This process is all dependent on the amount of salt used as well as the temperature of the fermentation location. More salt slows down the process whereas warmth speeds it up. The peak of fermentation depends on your taste and once satisfied, move them to your fridge where the process will continue but at much slower speed.As the days go by, the flavors will keep changing as the process continues.

Traditionally, fermentation was done to ensure the vegetables lasted through winter. Nowadays, itis done to improve the health benefits of the vegetables as well as help with weight loss. Fermented vegetables are not the easiest to take in in terms of taste but with time they grow on you and you may end up having them as a favorite.

How is Peptides associated with Skin

With new healthy skin fixings and items being acquainted with ladies continually, it can get to be overpowering to comprehend what these fixings can accomplish for your skin. Peptides are a standout amongst the most encouraging disclosures in the most recent couple of years. Take in more about this hostile to maturing powerhouse, what it can accomplish for you and how you can include it into your excellence regimen.

 

What are peptides?

 

Peptides are the links of amino acids and are the building squares of proteins in the skin. At the point when peptides shape a lengthylink of amino acids, then they get to be proteins. If they are in a small link of amino acids, then they can enter the top layer of the skin and send signs to the cells to tell them how to work.

 

One critical protein in the skin is collagen. Collagen gives the skin its suppleness and thickness. At the point when collagen separates in the skin,wrinkles shape. Peptides connected thetop of the skin can relay a flag to collagen to provoke the development of new voila, and collagen, you resemble more young supple skin.

 

Sorts of peptides

 

There are numerous, many sorts of peptides, yet for healthy skin, there are particular peptides that are utilized broadly. The most well-known are collagen invigorating peptides, for example, Matrixyl; as present in Zensation’sBioregenerating Serum.

 

Secondly, there are copper peptides, that are likewise appeared to diminish aggravation. One item to attempt that bears copper peptides is the Neova Night Therapy with a Copper Peptide Complex.
At long last, probably the most inventive peptides are neuropeptides. The most prominent are called Argireline or Acetyl Hexapeptide-8. One serum that incorporates Argireline is Skin’s Exlinea Serum pHaze 25. Another case of this kind of peptide is Syn-ake, an engineered peptide that cases to lessen the profundity of wrinkles and increment skin’s smoothness. It depends on a fixing that imitates the poison of the Asian Snake. You can discover this in serums, for example,MicroVenomEyeLift Complex.

Why API production is high in India or China?

Lower API production costs in India and China drive a lot of growth for this sector. For instance, to create, test, fabricate and advertise a non specific drug in India costs 20-40% of what it costs in the West. Indian and Chinese favorable circumstances for API production normally originate from:

  • Lower work, framework, transportation and gear costs: If a regular Western API organization has a normal compensation list of 100, this file is as low as 10 for the run of the mill Indian API firm and 8 for a Chinese one, individually. Not even the higher efficiency of a Western organization (because of the higher normal robotization level of the assembling procedures) can abrogate the work cost difference. Moreover, India and China have lower power, coal, and water costs. Indian and Chinese firms are likewise installed in a system of crude materials and middle person suppliers thus have lower delivery and exchange costs for crude materials. Firms in these two nations regularly utilize less costly gear, prompting a lower devaluation cost.

 

  • Fewer natural directions: Currently, Indian and Chinese firms have less natural directions in regards to the purchasing, taking care of, and arranging of dangerous chemicals, which lead to bring down direct expenses for these organizations. In any case, as India and China increment natural stringency, firms will have to hold up under a greater amount of these expenses.

 

  • Larger scale producing: The IFC assesses that a production line making tablets in rankle bundling needs to make around 1.0–1.5 billion tablets for every year to be said to work at scale. Indian and Chinese firms have regularly come to scale when firms in different nations have not. For instance, the IFC gauges that 33% of the 30–40 percent cost drawback that a main Ghanaian last details maker endures versus high-scale Indian producers is owing to scale. Therefore it is more preferred for outsourcing the API production.

 

  • Lower boundaries to market passage: This is also good for the API production.

 

Techniques Employed In Chromatography

The separation of mixtures using chromatography is different in every type of chromatography. This is because different mixtures are made of components that are of different characteristics. Some mixtures are made of gases while others are made of liquids. For this reason, the type of chromatography will be different in different cases.

The techniques employed are however similar across all the types. This is mainly because the different types are all based on the same principles. The objective is also the same as they all seek to separate individual components.

The techniques of chromatography are as follows:-

  • Stationary phase- as the name suggests, the phase is motionless and allows the sample to move over it. It can either be in solid or liquid state. If in solid state, it is important for the particles to be uniform in size and shape. When the phase is liquid, it has to be spread uniformly across a solid background.
  • Mobile phase- this is what aids the mixture in question to move across the stationary/ motionless phase. It is either liquid or in gaseous state to ensure movement. It must always be opposite in polarity to the stationary phase. This means if the stationary phase is polar, the mobile phase should be non- polar and vice versa. It should also be pure
  • Flow rate- the rate at which the mobile phase flows over the stationary phase should always be kept constant. This ensures reliable results
  • Temperature- temperature should be constant to ensure it doesn’t alter the flow rate. High flow rate leads to faster separation but colour bands can be very close.
  • Treating of the sample- some samples need to be treated to ease separation. This is basically the chemical alteration of a sample before or after it is separated.

Benefits of fermentation

All of us suffer from digestive problems at one point or another. The surest way to get rid of these problems is to create a balance between the good bacteria in the digestive tract and the disease causing bacteria.

Fermented foods provide the most effective solution as they are rich in lactic acid-producing bacteria. Fermentation of food involves taking them through a process called lactofermentation where the natural bacteria consume the sugar and starch in the food resulting in the formation of lactic acid.

This process not only makes the food taste sour but also preserves it and develops b-vitamins, probiotics, omega-3 fatty acids and other enzymes which are beneficial to human beings. Fermentation of food in the natural way also maintains its nutrients and makes it easily digestible. The probiotics arising as a result of the fermentation process could be the reason why consumption of fermented foods results in better digestion.

Benefits of food fermentation

There are a number of benefits that come from fermented foods:

Cost friendly- food can be fermented at home with ease and since fermented food lasts longer, you can buy it when it’s cheap and ferment for future use. Consumption of this food also takes away the need to use supplements further reducing your budget requirements.

Probiotics-consumption of fermented foods introduces good bacteria into the digestive tract which improves digestion and the bowel movements as well as one’s immunity.

Better absorption of nutrients-when the balance in the digestive system is restored, you will absorb the nutrients you take in better eliminating the need to take supplements.

Food preservation-normal food only lasts a few days in the fridge whereas fermented food can last for months and without losing the nutritional content.

Weight loss- balancing the bacteria in your gut is one of the things that will make you lose weight and feel better. Consumption of fermented foods is one sure way to achieve this.

Fermentation is mostly known for alcohol creation but its benefits in food are numerous and has recently gained popularity in the quest for weight loss.