Tag Archives: chemistry

Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient Manufacturing and Processing

There are several steps involved in the API manufacturing. All of these steps have to be co-ordinate carefully.

Not only that but it must be ensured that all of the API manufacturing equipments are used to their maximum efficiency. Hence maximum optimization is favored. All of this must be ensured without any compromise to the quality.

Care must be taken to ensure that the API manufacturing process takes place in a clean environment, avoid cross contamination of different APIs and maintain the requisite strength of the APIs.Molecule

The key to developing a good API lies in the raw materials chosen. Good laboratory conditions along with adherence to the health authority regulations are a must. The appropriate reactor must be chose along with a purification method that delivers the maximum throughput.

Roughly speaking the  various steps involved in API manufacturing are:

  • Selection of raw materials- the necessary raw materials of appropriate quantities must be selected. These comprise the starting materials.
  • Reactor- the raw materials are treated in a reactor under the optimal conditions to obtain the intermediate products.
  • Purification- now the intermediates are isolated and purified to obtain individual products. This involves a variety of purification techniques including, filtration, sedimentation, crystallization, and centrifugation and so on.
  • Standards- the products that are obtained as a result are checked for their strength. Each pharmaceutical company employs different standards to measure the strength of its API.
  • Packaging –finally the products are milled and packaged carefully.

The API manufactured is the incorporated or integrated with the transport agent, which is responsible for the drug’s delivery into our systems. We have to make sure that the API is agreeable with the inactive material chosen. Once more the drug is tested before distribution on a commercial scale.


Future of API manufacturin

Consistently, expansive pharmaceutical suppliers can eject anywhere in the range of 3000 to 5000 tons of unsafe industrial wastes eachIf someone ask any legitimate API producer how they might want to improve the procedure?, they’d likely say by speeding up the responses, or by minimizing expensive. The unexpectedlyanswer to that question is diminishing waste from API amalgamation would be to decrease the quantity of responses required to reject that outer particles Today there are in everywhere louder calls for API manufacturing to make big strides toward environmental friendliness – that is to say, to decrease the waste they create…,

In spite of howdistinctive is the objective might be, theyalways ends up with useless solutionof the same as less responses idea which meansnon-solution at all. Butglimmer of hope to solve this problem has been in horizon by putting forward brilliant idea environmentally friendly which is to discover effective solutions and impetuses that are more productive, as well as better for the planet.


What is the future of API manufacturing?  

By effortlessly search you will find many of known API manufacturing firms which aremoving far from multifunctional instils and rather than they choosing practice at in particular locales. Then, there will serious concerns on how come can they monitored? Especially after each of API made by one organization, in one nation, with the excipient made in another by an alternate organization, then merged and circulated to another organization inside and out makes this case somewhat difficult to becontrolled or over sighted.

The running development in new restorative innovations is inducing the APIsinterest overall today particularly with the expanded importation of crude pharmaceutical fixings from developing markets a recent consideredstudy concluded that nations like India and China, which now supply more than 40% of APIs utilized as a part of the U.S. will doubled that figure to an incredible 80% in only the following 10 years.

What does synthetic organic chemistry do for us?

Chemistry and other branches of science are just very important for our life. Every advancement in technology and science will bring us a lot of benefits to us. Therefore, we should take a deeper look at the process of achievement for chemistry, and for that, we must learn what is synthetic organic chemistry.

Substance in chemistry

When we are talking about chemistry, we are actually talking about a study of different substances in the world. The basis of such substances are of course the elements on the periodic table, and for more advanced people they will learn about compounds, which are basically combination of the elements.

Structural Formula Wallpaper Adrenaline Chemistry
Structural Formula Wallpaper Adrenaline Chemistry

We will study carefully about the properties of the above substances, like at what temperature will the substance melt or condense, and what are the colors and appearance of the substance so that we can identify it. Of course we will also need to know whether or not the substance is toxic or in other way harmful to human beings.

However, this is only what we do when we are learning the basics of chemistry, and there is nothing to do with synthetic organic chemistry.  


Discovery of new substance is too slow

Stepping into the modern era, the demand for comfort and convenience in ur daily lives are sky high. However, let us look at how the substance or elements are discovered in normal chemistry study—they are discovered naturally. This is a random process of discovering elements and substance by observation and random experiments.

The problems of this is that it is too slow and not focused. People often have a demand for better lives and they will therefore need some substance having a particularly property—maybe a super glue or some substance that will not be attached to dust or something that is super easy to clean.

Another problem for this normal way of discovery is that we cannot guarantee that the next substance of materials being discovered are the one that we want. We may end up finding something toxic. Therefore, we will need something that is more focused in finding the substance that we want.


A focused study to create new materials

Under this background, we can explain why the technique of synthesis are so useful to us. Synthesis is a unique way of doing experiment, and the aim of that is to create or produce new substance or compound. So, the starting point of doing synthesis is to make new substance, and particularly, the substance that we want.

The process of doing a synthesis is quite difficult and it often involves quite a number of execution for chemical reactions. Besides, the success rate for such a synthesis is still low, although obviously it will be much higher than the aforementioned random way of finding the right materials. Therefore, it would be a long journey before any new substance are really being found.

Slow qualitative research

This is what synthetic organic chemistry is about—it is mainly a sub-field of synthetic chemistry in which scientists are dedicated to create and obtain new organic materials by the method of synthesis.

What are organic materials? It is just a group of chemical compounds or elements that contain at least one carbon atom. This is one way of classifying the materials and substances in the world but this is an important one. This is because usually organic materials are much more complicated than inorganic one and therefore we will usually pay more attention to study the organic materials. This is also what synthetic organic chemistry do, but they aim is not to study but to create.

Influence of PSD method development on Sedimentation Process

Industries always consider particle size distribution in the treatment of water.

It helps in the PSD method development on sedimentation process of storm water treatment. This is done by the removal of heavy metals or solids and pollutants. The velocity or speed of the sediments are determined by the shape, size, density and texture of the particles.

Notions Guiding PSD in the Removal of Sediments

The first is the belief that the size of particles influences the settling speed or velocity of the particles. That is, the weight of the particles, which is based majorly on how big or small they are, determines how they settle. Also, it is of the notion that the coming together or concentration of metals depend solely on their sizes.


Instruments of PSD Sedimentation Process

Detention ponds

These are the common PSD method development on sedimentation methods industries use in water treatment and pollutants removal. The operations of the detention ponds depend on the size of the ponds, detention time and the conditions of mixing.

Detention time = pond volume ÷ inflow. Inflow is the highest flow rate of rain that falls on impermeable surface. To model the removal performance,  fully mixed condition must represent the minimum percent while the quiescent condition is the maximum percent.

Hydrodynamic Seperators

They are one of the PSD method development on sedimentation process’ devices industries use to treat stormwater. They calculate the percent removal as a function of settling velocity and flow. In its calculation, it takes in the consideration of some  variables, such as the diameter of separator, the depth of water, removal efficiency, and pecelet number.

Heavy Metals

Metals absorb with sediments. Small sediments attract more metals while particles of large sediments attract lesser metals. Large particles have large surface area per mass and large settling velocities. Thus, large particles retain more in the sedimentation process.


The PSD method development is an important feature that helps in the water treatment by the use of sedimentation  practice.


Downstream processing: An Intro

Downstream processing is the process of making new medicines and biosynthetic products from natural resources. These natural resources can be anything from animals to plants and even the bio-waste. The process of downstream processing includes the proper management of other resources as well like water management.

Uses of downstream processing:

  •    To make antibiotics:

Downstream processing is very useful to make the antibiotics as they use biological and natural resources to make these medicines.

  •    To make hormones:

Once upon a time hormones were considered only to be produced by the human body naturally. By using downstream processing, it is now possible to make very useful hormones like insulin and human growth hormones.

  •    Vaccines:

Vaccines made by the natural resources are proved to be more effective and do not have side effects.

  •    Flavors:

This is a new concept in the biotechnology field. But it surely is a good way to make flavors. The artificial flavors were sometimes considered to be harmful but the flavors mad by downstream processing by using natural resources are safe.

The downstream processing comes under the specialization field of biotechnology and chemical engineering. This process has significantly changed the medical industry as they do not have to make new medicines from non-biological compounds. That process was lengthy and it further created by products like polluted water.

This process includes various processes in it. It takes four steps to get the final product through downstream processing.

  1.    Capture:

This includes the process of removing the colloidal material from the main solution.

  1.    Product isolation:

Product isolation is the removal of those materials whose properties differ from the main solution.

  1.    Intermediate purification:

This process includes the removal of bulk contaminants such as host cells and other types of viruses.

  1.    Product polishing:

Product polishing is the refinement of the final product until they become the desired product.

This was the introduction to the downstream processing. There will be a series of articles about the various processes include in the downstream processing.

Hope this articles helps you.

Organic Chemistry and Synthetic Organic Chemistry

The differences between Organic Chemistry and Synthetic Organic Chemistry are small, but by no means insignificant. At it’s most base and simple form, Organic Chemistry describes the overall study of the properties and structures of organic compounds, and the effects had on them by various sources. While the study referred to as Synthetic Organic Chemistry generally talks more specifically about finding ways to create compounds using existing methods.


This can either mean creating brand new compounds or molecules that have never existed before (but have been theorized to have desirable uses and/or applications) or simply taking an existing compound or molecule and trying to find a more efficient way to create it so that it can be used more readily.


More Details


Of course saying that those are the only two uses of synthetic organic chemistry is almost insulting to the study, but they are the two main focuses, and will therefore be the focus here. Since synthetic organic chemistry is in fact a subset of the larger umbrella of “Organic Chemistry” people usually wind up studying a bit of both. However, it is theoretically possible to study organic chemistry and only have the most passing familiarity with synthetic organic chemistry.


So it’s not that it’s a different science, per-se, it just simply uses focuses one general aspect of the science. The building of compounds. It might be a bit boring to some people, but to others this process is endlessly fascinating. So, to clarify, this is the process of:


1: Mixing Compounds or Molecules

2: Adding and Repeating as Needed

3: Testing the Results Under Various Conditions

4: Making a Viable, Usable Entity at the Other End


This is a wonderful, useful science that is helping drive the modern world forward as we create new and exciting molecules. Or simply better ways of making stuff we already know how to make, making them more available for people and the public in general.