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Fermentation- How to ferment vegetables

Based on the numerous benefits that arise from consuming fermented foods, vegetable fermenting is something that you can consider taking up from the comfort of your home. The process is simple and you can use vegetables from your garden or from your local market to make them last longer.


You can ferment them whole, chop or shred them all based on your desired end product. It involves salting which can be done in two ways.You can salt them directly by sprinkling salt on them and pounding them until they produce juice that covers them well in the fermentation vessel or you could also dip them in salty water, brine, and ensure that they are completely covered.

Once salted, pack them in the jars and ensure they are fully submerged in water or the juice. Where they don’t produce enough juice, add filtered water.

The process

Fermentation is a process that takes time and in most cases,it begins within a couple of days and continues for much longer. This process is all dependent on the amount of salt used as well as the temperature of the fermentation location. More salt slows down the process whereas warmth speeds it up. The peak of fermentation depends on your taste and once satisfied, move them to your fridge where the process will continue but at much slower speed.As the days go by, the flavors will keep changing as the process continues.

Traditionally, fermentation was done to ensure the vegetables lasted through winter. Nowadays, itis done to improve the health benefits of the vegetables as well as help with weight loss. Fermented vegetables are not the easiest to take in in terms of taste but with time they grow on you and you may end up having them as a favorite.

Benefits of fermentation

All of us suffer from digestive problems at one point or another. The surest way to get rid of these problems is to create a balance between the good bacteria in the digestive tract and the disease causing bacteria.

Fermented foods provide the most effective solution as they are rich in lactic acid-producing bacteria. Fermentation of food involves taking them through a process called lactofermentation where the natural bacteria consume the sugar and starch in the food resulting in the formation of lactic acid.

This process not only makes the food taste sour but also preserves it and develops b-vitamins, probiotics, omega-3 fatty acids and other enzymes which are beneficial to human beings. Fermentation of food in the natural way also maintains its nutrients and makes it easily digestible. The probiotics arising as a result of the fermentation process could be the reason why consumption of fermented foods results in better digestion.

Benefits of food fermentation

There are a number of benefits that come from fermented foods:

Cost friendly- food can be fermented at home with ease and since fermented food lasts longer, you can buy it when it’s cheap and ferment for future use. Consumption of this food also takes away the need to use supplements further reducing your budget requirements.

Probiotics-consumption of fermented foods introduces good bacteria into the digestive tract which improves digestion and the bowel movements as well as one’s immunity.

Better absorption of nutrients-when the balance in the digestive system is restored, you will absorb the nutrients you take in better eliminating the need to take supplements.

Food preservation-normal food only lasts a few days in the fridge whereas fermented food can last for months and without losing the nutritional content.

Weight loss- balancing the bacteria in your gut is one of the things that will make you lose weight and feel better. Consumption of fermented foods is one sure way to achieve this.

Fermentation is mostly known for alcohol creation but its benefits in food are numerous and has recently gained popularity in the quest for weight loss.

Fermentation Processes and its various types

The unit of fermentation in industrial microbiology is similar to a chemical plant that can be seen in a

chemical industry. Fermentation is a biological process and has certain requirements of sterility and use of

enzymic reactions. It does not include chemical reactions supported by catalysts. Fermentation is operated

at high pressure and temperature as well. The process of industrial fermentation is divided in two types

featuring various modifications and combinations, namely continuous and batch fermentations.

Continuous fermentation

During batch fermentation, the microorganisms’ growth confirms the characteristic curve of growth

following a lag phase in a loga-rithmic phase. It is terminated in the growth rate by progressive

decrements until it reaches the stationary phase and this happens owing to the limitation of essential

nutrients. However, the substrate in continuous fermentation is added at a fixed rate to the fermenter.

This helps in maintaining the organisms, besides the fermentation products are continuously taken out.

The arrangements and design for continuous fermentation is complex to some extent.

Batch fermentations

A fermenter tank is filled with raw materials mash to be fermented. The pH for microbial fermentation

and the temperature is adjusted and nutritive supplements are occasionally added to the mash prepared.

However, in a pure culture process, the mash is sterilized in steam. These pure culture inoculums are

added to the fermenter using a separate vessel. After a proper time, the fermenter contents are taken out

for processing. Thus, the fermenter is cleaned and the process is repeated. In this way, fermentation is

divided as a discontinuous process into batches.

Aerobic fermentations

Industrial processes are known as ‘fermentations’, but are carried by microorganisms under the aerobic

conditions. The modern fermentation in aerobic conditions are retained with submerged cultures in a

closed fermenter and these contents get aerated by forcing sterilized air and agitated with au impeller.

Anaerobic fermentations

Anaerobic fermentations need mild aeration for starting growth phase, and sufficient N agitation to enable

mixing and temperature maintenance.

Fermentation, an introduction with examples

Fermentation denotes a process employed to produce beer, wine, yogurt and several other

products. Fermentation represents a metabolic process such that an organism converts starch, a

carbohydrate, into sugar, into an acid or alcohol. For instance, yeast performs fermentation to

acquire energy and this is done by converting sugar into alcohol. The bacteria performing

fermentation, converts carbohydrates into lactic acid.

Fermentation History

 A natural process is fermentation. This is the reason people apply it to make various

products such as wine, cheese and beer even prior to the biochemical process came to be


 Louis Pasteur in the 1850s and 60s was the first scientist to learn about fermentation and

he demonstrated that this happened due to the presence of living cells.

Examples that are formed by fermentation

Most people employ the fermentation process for food and beverages, but do not realize many

important industrial products are also produced due to fermentation. For instance, beer, yogurt,

wine, cheese and some sour foods also contain lactic acid such as pepperoni, kimchi and

sauerkraut, bread levaning due to yeast, hydrogen gas, sewage treatment, industrial production of

alcohol such as biofuels and ethanol fermentation.

Yeast and some bacteria perform ethanol fermentation such that the pyruvate obtained from

glucose metabolism gets broken into carbon dioxide and ethanol. Ethanol fermentation is a

typical process that is used in the wine, beer and bread production. Fermentation owing to the

high levels pectin presence results in the methanol small amounts production and this is actually

toxic if consumed.

Lactic Acid Fermentation

The molecules pyruvate obtained from the glucose metabolism undergoes the fermentation and

turns into lactic acid. While the lactic acid fermentation converts lactose in yogurt production

into lactic acid. Thus, it exists in animal muscles and is put to use, if there is a need of energy for

the tissues at a faster rate than the supply of oxygen.

A List of various types of fermentation process

Fermentation is the procedure which involves the chemical doings of creatures, throughout their

progression, expansion, reproduction, also senescence and passing away. Fermentation technology is the

use of creatures to create food, drugs and alcoholic drinks on a bulky manufacturing basis.

The main principle involved in the manufacturingfermentation technology is that animals are grown-

upinappropriatesituations, by providing raw materials conferenceall the essentialwantslike salts,

nitrogen,carbon, trace essentials and vitamins.

The finished products designed as anoutcome of their breakdownthroughout their lifetime are free into the

broadcasting, which areremoved for consumption by a human being and that have a greatprofitable value.

The key products of fermentation technology manufactured frugally on a big industrial foundation are

beer,wine,vinegar, cider,cheese, ethanol, antibiotics, hormones, complete proteins, enzymes and other


Kinds of Fermentation Processes

There are three different types of fermentation process which are as follows:

 Batch fermentation

This word is recognized to that type of fermentation where there is a modification in culture medium,

the amount of bacteria and the quantity of the product manufactured. In batch fermentation six levels

of the microscopicprogression are seen.

(a) Lag stage:

(b) Acceleration stage:

(c) Log stage:

(d) Deceleration phase:

(e) Stationary phase:

(f) Death phase:

 Feb-batch fermentation:

In this kind of fermentation, newlyready culture meansare added at fixed intervals without

eliminating the culture liquid. This raises the capacity of the fermentation culture. This kind of

fermentation is used for making of proteins from recombinant microbes.

 Continuous fermentation:

In this kind of fermentation the merchandises are detacheduninterruptedlyincluding the cells and the

same is filled with the cell breadth and the addition of new culture media. This effect in a stable or

continuous volume of the matters of fermentor. This kind of fermentation is used for the creation of

single cell protein , antibiotics and biologicalthinners.