Tag Archives: organic chemistry

The topic of plant extraction may be research topic and hence, all the topics or contents related to plant extraction cannot be included in this description

However, enough insight will be provided by categorizing the plant extraction into various groups that are easy to understand and absorb from a general view point. There will not be much technical information contained in this. However, many important points will be listed to know the very basics of plant extraction.

The plant extraction is broadly classified into the following seven categories for the purpose of this article:

  • Plant extraction – Oils
  • Plant extraction – From vegetables
  • Plant extraction – From fruits
  • Plant extraction – Dyes
  • Plant extraction – Herbal
  • Plant extraction – Cosmetic products and
  • Plant extraction – From roots

Even we use the plants and plant products directly in our day-to-day life, we do use the plant extraction in a limited quantity. For instance, one may not use all the above listed extraction altogether. One may use the oil extracts in large quantities in food industries, whereas the dye extracts may be widely used in garment or some chemical industry. Herbal, root and medicinal extracts are mainly used in healthcare or medical fields. Fruits and vegetables extracts play a vital role sometimes in helping to nourish the body parts, internal or external.

The plant products such as leaves, vegetables or fruits are generally taken in large quantities. However, plant extraction are taken in proportions when compared to the actual fruit or vegetable. The dictionary definition for extract is ‘to remove from a larger whole’. It can also be referred to as essence or concentrate. The extract is a concentrated portion from the large vegetable mass, such as the plant extraction of sugar cane juice from the sugar cane plant, leaving the fodder aside and the juice in a glass. The juice is referred here as the extract. Let us now explore the different types of plant extraction.

 

Organic Chemistry and Synthetic Organic Chemistry

The differences between Organic Chemistry and Synthetic Organic Chemistry are small, but by no means insignificant. At it’s most base and simple form, Organic Chemistry describes the overall study of the properties and structures of organic compounds, and the effects had on them by various sources. While the study referred to as Synthetic Organic Chemistry generally talks more specifically about finding ways to create compounds using existing methods.

 

This can either mean creating brand new compounds or molecules that have never existed before (but have been theorized to have desirable uses and/or applications) or simply taking an existing compound or molecule and trying to find a more efficient way to create it so that it can be used more readily.

 

More Details

 

Of course saying that those are the only two uses of synthetic organic chemistry is almost insulting to the study, but they are the two main focuses, and will therefore be the focus here. Since synthetic organic chemistry is in fact a subset of the larger umbrella of “Organic Chemistry” people usually wind up studying a bit of both. However, it is theoretically possible to study organic chemistry and only have the most passing familiarity with synthetic organic chemistry.

 

So it’s not that it’s a different science, per-se, it just simply uses focuses one general aspect of the science. The building of compounds. It might be a bit boring to some people, but to others this process is endlessly fascinating. So, to clarify, this is the process of:

 

1: Mixing Compounds or Molecules

2: Adding and Repeating as Needed

3: Testing the Results Under Various Conditions

4: Making a Viable, Usable Entity at the Other End

 

This is a wonderful, useful science that is helping drive the modern world forward as we create new and exciting molecules. Or simply better ways of making stuff we already know how to make, making them more available for people and the public in general.

Synthetic organic chemistry: drugs

In this series of articles on Synthetic organic chemistry we have seen use of organic chemistry in synthesis of products like explosive, dyes and polymers. Now, in this article we are going to see application of organic chemistry in the synthesis of drugs.

In earlier days, drugs were not synthesised from organic compound, they were just prepared by the use of natural and Ayurveda techniques.  Necessity for drug synthesis was felt as new diseases started to appear and older resources were not able to deal with them. It was around first half of nineteenth century when men like Richard Willstatter started to perform experiments with organic molecule for synthesis of drugs. At start insufficient knowledge about this subject troubled the organic chemist but theirhard work turned out to be a great success with a lot of benefits for chemist of 20th century.

Here are some examples of organic compounds which were used for the synthesis of drugs in earlier times.

  • Chlorophyll: Chlorophyll,the green, light absorbing catalyst present in plants was one of the first organic compound used in synthesis of drugs. The Germen chemist Richard Willstatter did experiment on chlorophyll and made possible production of carbohydrates and carbon dioxide by utilizing the sunlight.
  • Nucleotides: Structure of nucleotides was studied by Russian-American chemistPhoebus Aaron Theodor Levene. His studies resulted in the discovery of giant molecules nucleic acids. His studies were appreciated and worked on by other chemists who succeeded in the formation of various nucleotides and other related compounds.

Despite, these two organic compounds, chemist made use of many other useful organic compounds for the synthesis of drugs. For Instance, study of structure of carotenoids by Swiss chemist Paul Karrer d which is a plant pigment and closely resembles to vitamin A. But in the casesynthetics of drugs from organic substance surpassed natural drugs.

 

The strategic role of synthetic organic chemistry in pharmacy

The practical and strategic role of synthetic organic chemistry is critical to the accomplishment of

finding and creating new medications. Historically, restorative scientific experts were enrolled for their

expertise in organic synthesis and were in this manner taught the act of therapeutic science as a feature of

an on the job training program. Numerous medications began from natural product origins; in this

manner, the aptitude for scientists fit for retro synthetic anticipating confounded frameworks gave a solid

match in the pharmaceutical business.

As an outcome of this model, a few revelations of new medications were driven by synthesis

advancement and interest, for example, the benzodiazepines in the 1950s. This imperative class of

compounds was found by seeking after a configuration approach that was “chemically most alluring,

testing, and satisfying”.

It is likewise critical to highlight that legacy drug disclosure programs were driven by chemistry as well

as by the usage of in vivo testing right on time in the testing cascade. The results of this prerequisite were

that it generally directed the requirement for gram-amount sizes of immaculate material in the early

revelation stage. The availability of commercial reagents was not the same as in the present period, and in

this manner, more reagents and starting materials must be set up by individual scientific experts.

All of this prompted integrating and testing fewer mixes; be that as it may, these were regularly made in

bigger sums when contrasted with the present day era. Through the years, this model has advanced, as

have the parts of a therapeutic scientific expert. Now with the help of synthetic organic chemistry, we

have several compounds ready to be used to develop medicines.

Even in today’s time the process of synthetic organic chemistry is being outsourced for better results. It

provides a lot of advantages such as shipping, openness of reagents, time-zone logistics, and

manufactured capacities all must be settled preceding working with any CRO (contract research

organizations). It’s easy to develop a lot of other things with the help of synthetic organic chemistry.

Synthetic Organic Chemistry

Organic Chemistry is a branch of science; a natural science disciple that studies mixes of carbon with

different components, which are called organic compounds, and also the laws of change of such

compounds.

Carbon forms compound with most components and has the most pronounced limit—in respect to

different components—for forming chain or patterned atoms. The foundation of such particles may

comprise of a virtually boundless number of carbon atoms bound directly to each other, or it might

incorporate atoms of different components notwithstanding carbon. When this process is manually done

by man then it is termed as synthetic organic chemistry.

Using synthetic organic chemistry, we are able to generate those organic compounds in our laborites

which can be used to create several other things, like fuels, medicines, polymers, etc.

Organic compounds are equipped for perplexing and assorted changes, which are quite different from the

inorganic compounds and are used as an important ingredient in the formation and action of living

organisms. Some of them are proteins and carbohydrates, which are connected with digestive system;

nucleic acids, which convey the hereditary code of a creature; hormones, which regulate metabolism; and

vitamins. Synthetic organic chemistry is therefore a unique bridge between the sciences considering

lifeless matter and the most elevated type of the presence of matter that is life.

Classification of organic compounds

Mainly they are divided into three main categories: acyclic, carbocyclic, and heterocyclic. With the help

of synthetic organic chemistry, these compounds can also be created in the laboratories.

 Compounds of the first class incorporate hydrocarbons and those subsidiaries which have open

chain structure, for example methane hydrocarbons, which is likewise called as the alkane series

and others like ethylene (alkenes), acetylene (alkynes), and dienes.

 The carbocyclic compounds incorporates hydrocarbons and their subsidiaries that consists of

rings of carbon atoms in the particle, for example, the cycloparaffin series; cyclic unsaturated

mixes; and sweet-smelling hydrocarbons as well as its derivatives which contain benzene rings.

 The heterocyclic compounds incorporate natural exacerbates whose particles have rings

containing atoms of phosphorus, sulfur, arsenic, nitrogen, oxygen, or different components

notwithstanding carbon molecules.

Study of synthetic organic chemistry

Synthetic organic Chemistry is the investigation of the association amongst structure and reactivity of

organic atoms. A great deal of particularly, physical substance chemistry applies the exploratory

instruments of concoction chemistry to the investigation of the structure of organic particles and gives a

hypothetical system that deciphers nonetheless. Synthetic organic Chemistry structure impacts every

systems and rates of organic responses.

Synthetic Organic Chemistry might be a Special Branch of engineering, combination and considerations

with the improvement of organic mixes through organic responses. Organic particles normally contain

the following level of unpredictability than entirely inorganic mixes, all together that the union of

organic mixes has formed into one among the premier crucial branches of chemistry.

The mid-nineteenth century saw the advancement of a radical new course in chemistry: rather than

basically dissecting existing particles, scientists started to integrate them—including atoms that did not

exist in nature. The mix of this new synthetic methodology with more customary investigative

methodologies upset chemistry, prompting a profound comprehension of the basic standards of

compound structure and reactivity and to the development of the present day pharmaceutical and

substance commercial enterprises. The historical backdrop of synthetic chemistry offers a conceivable

guide for the advancement and effect of synthetic organic chemistry, a beginning field in which the

objective is to assemble novel organic frameworks.

Organic Synthesis

In synthetic organic chemistry, multi-step union of any organic compound requires the scientific expert

to finish three related undertakings:

1. Building the carbon system or skeleton of the sought particle.

2. Presenting, expelling or changing useful gatherings in a manner that accomplishes the usefulness of

the sought compound.

3. Practicing particular stereo control at all phases in which focuses of stereoisomerism are made or

affected.

These are not discrete free undertakings to be assaulted and explained thus, yet should be incorporated

and related in an overall arrangement.