Fermentation denotes a process employed to produce beer, wine, yogurt and several other
products. Fermentation represents a metabolic process such that an organism converts starch, a
carbohydrate, into sugar, into an acid or alcohol. For instance, yeast performs fermentation to
acquire energy and this is done by converting sugar into alcohol. The bacteria performing
fermentation, converts carbohydrates into lactic acid.
A natural process is fermentation. This is the reason people apply it to make various
products such as wine, cheese and beer even prior to the biochemical process came to be
Louis Pasteur in the 1850s and 60s was the first scientist to learn about fermentation and
he demonstrated that this happened due to the presence of living cells.
Examples that are formed by fermentation
Most people employ the fermentation process for food and beverages, but do not realize many
important industrial products are also produced due to fermentation. For instance, beer, yogurt,
wine, cheese and some sour foods also contain lactic acid such as pepperoni, kimchi and
sauerkraut, bread levaning due to yeast, hydrogen gas, sewage treatment, industrial production of
alcohol such as biofuels and ethanol fermentation.
Yeast and some bacteria perform ethanol fermentation such that the pyruvate obtained from
glucose metabolism gets broken into carbon dioxide and ethanol. Ethanol fermentation is a
typical process that is used in the wine, beer and bread production. Fermentation owing to the
high levels pectin presence results in the methanol small amounts production and this is actually
toxic if consumed.
Lactic Acid Fermentation
The molecules pyruvate obtained from the glucose metabolism undergoes the fermentation and
turns into lactic acid. While the lactic acid fermentation converts lactose in yogurt production
into lactic acid. Thus, it exists in animal muscles and is put to use, if there is a need of energy for
the tissues at a faster rate than the supply of oxygen.